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Operational Market

Market and posibility of operational uses

  • The compressed air storage device described here is suitable, depending on its dimensions, as an energy storage device for capacities from approx. 15 kWh to 100 kWh. The licensed construction principle allows a modular configuration and layout of the compressed air reservoir for individual needs.
  •   Areas of application can be different (not only renewable) energy sectors
  •   Energy sector coupling of electricity, heat (heating) and cold (cooling)
  •   Photovoltaic systems (small household systems with a nominal output of a few kW to large systems of hundreds of kW)
  •   Wind power plants (small wind plants to large plants with hundreds of kW power)
  •   Energy storage for smart grid projects (smart grids ensure stability in the network and balance electricity generation and consumption
      Together with energy storage, they also enable the integration of decentralized energy producers on a large scale.)
  •   Energy storage for electricity communities (network of decentralized energy producers)
  •   Energy storage for the liberalization and direct marketing of the electricity market (trade your own electricity on exchange basis)
  •   Compressed air generation in general (highly efficient storage technology for compressed air systems, compressed air networks)
  •   Storage for biogas plants and sewage treatment plants (instead of air, biogas resp. digester gas is compressed. This can be stored until it can be fed into the gas network or used to generate electricity)

Advantages of this compressed air storage

  •   Decentralized energy storage
  •   The sector coupling of electricity, heating and cooling energy   results in an unmatched overall efficiency
  •   Storage capacity scalability
  •   Long-term storage of excess energy (summer -> winter)
  •   Simultaneous charging (storing energy) and discharging (consuming) possible
  •   Minimal loss of capacity
  •   Quick start capability and black start capability
  •   Long service life thanks to unlimited storage cycles
  •   Use of standard components from the hydraulic and compressed air industry
  •   Modularity of the compression and decompression units (two cylinders or more)
  •   Complete and easy recyclability
  •   Full environmental sustainability
    o No hazardous or harmful substances during manufacture, operation and disposal
      (does not contain lithium, rare earths, cobalt ...)
    o no CO2 emissions during manufacture or operation

Existing storage systems for electrical energy - why a new storage technology?

  • Batteries (Li-ion and other accumulator systems) achieve a good storage density, but their lifespan is limited to 8-10 years due to the cycles. Battery storage systems are mainly used as storage systems for photovoltaic systems in the power range from a few kW to 100 kW. Many grouped individual batteries in power packs can already supply entire towns with decentralized electrical energy. e.g. Jamestown in Australia (315 MWh wind farm with 130 MWh in Tesla power packs).

  • Redox flow storage systems can store large amounts of energy. They offer high cycle stability. The redox flow battery of the Pellworm hybrid power plant has a storage capacity of 1.6 MWh and a charging / discharging capacity of 200 kW. An example of a small household application is the vanadium redox flow battery from VoltStorage, which operates in the power range of 2 kW.

  • Hydrogen has a very high energy density (triple gasoline, umpteen lithium batteries). There are different storage systems based on hydrogen. Common are compressed gas storage, liquid gas storage, metal hybrid storage, P2G - Power to Gas (electrolysis and methanation). With hydrogen for storing electrical energy, an overall efficiency of approx. 25% can be achieved. In connection with fuel cells, hydrogen is currently being propagated to drive vehicles electrically instead of batteries. Hydrogen filling stations already exist and are constantly being expanded.

  • Flywheel storage systems are suitable for stabilizing the network frequency in island networks and as short-term compensation storage. The use of this storage system makes economic sense if the energy can be charged and discharged in a short time (a few minutes). The performance of flywheel storage systems ranges from a few kW to a few 10 MW.

  • Pumped storage power plants store energy in the form of potential energy (positional energy) in a reservoir, which, if required, is converted into electrical energy by means of kinetic energy (by draining the reservoir to drive turbines). Pumped storage power plants can provide high output to cover peak loads within minutes. The overall efficiency of a pumped storage power plant is 75–80%. In Germany there are currently 36 pumped storage plants in operation with a total output of approx. 7 GW and a storage capacity of approx. 40 GWh. Seawater pumped storage power plants are also in operation in Japan and the USA.

  • Compressed air storage (CAES) is not a new storage technology, but it has only been implemented in large-scale projects so far. There are currently two large plants in operation around the world, namely the Huntdorf compressed air storage power plants in Lower Saxony and McIntosh in Alabama. These provide energy stored in compressed air in the gigawatt range. Both power plants are combined with gas turbines, which prevent cold freezing when the energy is extracted by adding fossil fuels.